Showing posts with label arkeologi. Show all posts
Showing posts with label arkeologi. Show all posts

Meriam Tawanan Sri Sultan Perkasa Alam

11:33:00 AM

Di tempat meriam ini berada dewasa ini, di Fort Cornwallis, Pulau Pinang, ia lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Meriam Sri Rambai. Tidak diketahui asal usul penamaan tersebut, tapi yang jelas, meriam ini pada awalnya adalah milik VOC (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie atau United East Indies Company).


Selain lambang VOC yang ditemukan pada badan meriam ini, pada bagian pangkal larasnya juga terdapat tulisan dengan huruf besar dalam bahasa Latin berbunyi: IAN BERCERUS ME FECIT 1603 (Ian Bercerus made me in 1603), "Ian Bercerus membuatku pada 1603". Tulisan ini dengan terang menginformasikan pembuat dan tahun pembuatannya pada 1603, yakni satu tahun setelah VOC resmi berdiri. Meriam ini, dengan demikian, merupakan meriam Belanda tertua yang ditemukan di Semenanjung Malayu.

Tentang kekuatan angkatan laut Aceh dalam abad ke-11 Hijriah (abad ke-17 Masehi) juga telah disinyalir lewat inskripsi Jawiy (Melayu) yang bertatahkan perak, pada bagian tengah meriam. Inskripsi tersebut berbunyi:
"Tawanan Tuan kita Sri Sultan Perkasa Alam Johan Berdaulat tatkala menitahkan Orangkaya-kaya Sri Maharaja akan Panglima dan Orangkaya Laksamana dan Orangkaya Raja Lila Wangsa akan mengamuk ke Johor. 2 Ra' (?) Barrel."

Tulisan tersebut menginformasikan bahwa meriam ini merupakan di antara rampasan perang yang telah diperoleh pada zaman Sri Sultan Perkasa Alam atau Sri Paduka Sultan Iskandar Muda-Rahamtu-Llah 'Alaih. Waktu itu, Orangkaya-kaya Sri Maharaja telah memerintahkan Panglima, Orangkaya Laksamana serta Orangkaya Raja Lila Wangsa-Rahmatu-Llah 'Alaihim-untuk "mengamuk" di Johor.
Sebagian sejarawan Barat mengaitkan informasi ini dengan peristiwa penyerangan Aceh ke Johor pada 1613 Masehi. Penyerangan itu terkait sikap Aceh yang tidak akan pernah mengenal kompromi terhadap musuh besarnya, Portugis di Malaka, begitu pula terhadap seluruh negara yang mengikat apapun bentuk hubungan dengan bangsa penjajah tersebut. Sejarawan meyakini bahwa dalam penyerangan itulah, meriam VOC ini disita oleh Aceh serta dipindahkan bersama sultan dan keluarga kesultanan Johor yang ditawan ke Aceh.
Mengenai permulaan kepemilikan Johor atas meriam ini sebelum penyerangan tersebut, para sejarawan belum dapat memastikannya, tapi C. A. Gibson-Hill (1953), tampaknya, cenderung untuk mengatakan bahwa itu terjadi pada 1605, yakni sekitar 2 tahun setelah pembuatannya, sebagai sebuah hadiah resmi dari VOC kepada Sultan Johor.
C. A. Gibson-Hill (1953) juga mengemukakan bahwa meriam itu masih berada di Aceh sampai dengan Penguasa Aceh memberikannya kepada Sultan Ibrahim dari Selangor pada 1795 guna membantunya dalam sebuah peperangan.
Sultan Ibrahim kemudian menjadikan meriam ini sebagai salah satu senjata pertahanan di benteng Kuala Selangor, dan masih berada di situ sampai tahun 1871. Namun sekitar pertengahan tahun itu, dua kapal Inggris menyerang Kuala Selangor, dan dalam tahun itu pula tidak sedikit senjata telah berada di Kota Cornwallis, termasuk di antaranya Meriam Tawanan Sri Sultan Perkasa Alam atau yang disebut dengan Meriam Sri Rambai.

*) Materi ini dipamerkan di stan Wali Nanggroe pada acara Sail Sabang 2017. Kerjasama Lembaga Wali Nanggroe dengan Pengurus Mapesa






Dikutip dari group Mapesa.
Foto: Irfan M Nur.

Lamuri Kota Pelabuhan di Gerbang Maritim Asia Tenggara

10:38:00 PM

Mesti tidak kurang dari 600 tahun yang silam, sebuah kawasan yang hari ini berada dalam wilayah Gampong Lamreh, di Kecamatan Mesjid Raya, Kabupaten Aceh Besar, telah terpilih untuk menjadi kota pelabuhan (bandar) penting di bagian barat laut Aceh.
Dalam waktu yang sama, kota yang menghadap ke Jalur Malaka (Malacca Passage) di laluan pelayaran Dunia itu juga merupakan kediaman para penguasa Muslim yang digelar dengan "malik" (raja) dan sultan. Di sana, mereka telah silih berganti memerintah sampai lebih separuh abad dalam abad ke-9 Hijriah (ke-15 Masehi). Kubur-kubur mereka ditemukan di berbagai sisi daerah yang hari ini disebut secara umum dengan Ujoeng Batee Kapai dan Kuta Leuboek.
Penanggalan-penanggalan yang dijumpai pada berbagai nisan kubur yang bernilai seni tinggi di Lamreh dapat saja memberitahukan tentang era puncak kemajuan yang dicapai oleh kota pelabuhan itu di paruh pertama abad ke-9 Hijriah (ke-15 Masehi). Keletakannya di tebing tepi laut antara teluk Krueng Raya dan teluk di depan Kuta Leuboek juga dapat menandakan peran kota sebagai sebuah pelabuhan dagang yang sibuk, di samping sebagai pusat pemerintahan untuk mengatur berbagai aktifitas perdagangan maritim di kawasan itu. Berbagai bukti dan indikator yang telah ditemukan sejauh ini dengan terang menunjukkan bahwa Lamuri merupakan sebuah kota pelabuhan di gerbang maritim Asia Tenggara.
Tidak hanya kubur-kubur yang ditemukan di bekas kota tua itu tapi juga berbagai peninggalan sejarah semisal mata uang, tembikar dan berbagai struktur bangunan.
Sebuah konstruksi bangunan kuno yang relatif masih banyak menyisakan bagian-bagiannya adalah bangunan benteng yang dikenal dengan benteng Kuta Leuboek. Benteng ini berlokasi di sebelah timur perbukitan Ujoeng Batee Kapai, di sebuah lembah sempit di mana Krueng Leuboek mengalir menuju teluk di depan Kuta Leuboek.
Konstruksi benteng yang berorientasi barat laut-tenggara dan mengikuti jalur bukit secara jelas menunjukkan bagian yang dilindungi oleh benteng, yaitu area luas di atas bukit di mana lokasi-lokasi kubur para pemerintah Lamuri ditemukan. Ini menjadi sebuah pertanda bahwa benteng itu setidaknya telah ada sejak masa kota pelabuhan itu masih aktif di paruh pertama abad ke-9 Hijriah (ke-15 Masehi).
Satu lokasi di antara lokasi-lokasi yang dilindungi dengan benteng tersebut tampak sangat khusus dan sentral di bekas kota lama itu. Di lokasi sentral itu telah ditemukan kubur seorang Sultan Lamuri yang wafat dalam abad ke-9 Hijriah (ke-15 Masehi). Ia bernama Muhammad, putera dari Malik 'Alawuddin yang wafat pada 822 Hijriah (1419 Masehi).
Tidak sebagaimana ayahnya yang bergelar sebagai Malik (raja), Muhammad malah bergelar sebagai "Sultan" yang menunjukkan daerah kekuasaannya yang lebih luas serta bala tentaranya yang lebih kuat daripada yang dimiliki oleh seorang Malik (raja).
Untuk sementara ini, dari seluruh inskripsi yang pernah ditemukan pada batu-batu nisan kubur di wilayah Kabupaten Aceh Besar dan Kota Banda Aceh, hanya inskripsi batu nisan Sultan Muhammad yang memberitakan tentang seseorang yang pertama sekali digelar dengan sultan di kedua wilayah ini.
Sesuai catatan pada nisan kuburnya, Sultan Muhammad bin 'Alawuddin telah wafat pada hari Senin, tanggal 20 Dzul Qa'adah tahun 834 Hijriah (29 Juli 1431), selang sekitar 3 tahun setelah wafat Al-Malikah Nahrasyiyah di Kota Sumatra, yang hari ini berada dalam wilayah administratif Kecamatan Samudera di Kabupaten Aceh Utara.
Nisan Makam Sultan Muhammad bin 'Alauddin
wafat 834 H (1431 M).
Sayangnya, sampai kini, bekas kota pelabuhan yang memiliki sekian banyak peninggalan dan bukti sejarahnya ini masih belum memperoleh perhatian serta perlindungan yang seharusnya sebagai salah satu pusaka Aceh yang tidak ternilai harganya.
*) Materi ini dipamerkan di stan Wali Nanggroe pada acara Sail Sabang 2017. Kerjasama Lembaga Wali Nanggroe dengan Pengurus Mapesa
Dikutip dari group Mapesa.

Sari Laporan Kegiatan Arkeologi di Aceh dalam Triwulan Pertama Tahun 1915

10:02:00 AM
Repro: Musafir Zaman.
Diterbitkan oleh J. J. de Vink
Kendati saya sudah menyebutkan dalam laporan saya bahwa saya bermaksud memindahkan pekerjaan saya ke Peurlak, dekat Idi, namun saya tidak besumpah untuk maksud tersebut disebabkan adanya temuan-temuan baru di sekitar Kuta Raja. 
Dalam bulan Desember, saya masih bersama Dr. Hoesein Djajadingrat melakukan kunjungan ke daerah 9 Mukim (Daroey), di mana di Kampung Biluy telah ditemukan banyak kompleks kuburan, termasuk salah satunya kompleks kubur sultan. Menurut Dr.Djajadingrat, kompleks kuburan itu sangat penting. Kompleks kuburan penting berikutnya juga telah ditemukan di Kampung Lam Taduk.
Setelah membuat foto dan salinan karbon di sini, praktik dialihkan ke Kampung Punge, di bagian Kuta Raja. Ada banyak kompleks kuburan yang ditemukan dan digali di situ, tapi tidak ada yang menarik. Atas saran Dr. Djajadiningrat, ada beberapa salinan karbon yang diambil dari sana, tapi tidak ada foto.
Saya juga berulang kali berada di berbagai kampung lain untuk menyelidiki kompleks-kompleks kuburan. Ketika saya menemukan sesuatu atau lainnya, saya kembali melakukan kunjungan bersama Dr. Djajadiningrat. Namun, sampai saat ini, kunjungan-kunjungan itu belum menghasilkan apa-apa. 
Laporan ini memuat selembar peta Kuta Raja dan sekitarnya (skala 1: 40.000), dari Lhok Nga sampai Ladong dan Indrapuri, yang menerangkan tempat-tempat di mana kubur-kubur itu ditandai dan difoto.
Awal Januari saya pergi ke Daya (Pantai Barat), dan di bawah penjagaan militer saya mengunjungi batu nisan Poteu Meureuhom Daya di Cot Gle Jong. Di Daya, saya bersama Dr. Djajadiningrat yang menemukan surat sultan (sarakata dengan cap sikureung) yang dibeli dari pemiliknya lalu dikirim ke Batavia.
Selanjutnya, klise (gambar negatif pada film potret) Tuan di Kandang I-1V, Kramat Tuan di Sore (?), Teungku Said (di Cot Lam Raya), Tuan Meurah, Blang Tutoeng, Blang Lam Ujoeng, Teungku Glumpang, Teungku Bak Asan, Ulee Lueng, Kampung Kandang dan Meureuhom Daya, salinan karbon dari Ulee Lueng, Raja Pirak, Teungku di Muling, Kubu Aneuk Uleebalang, Jirat Raya, Tuan Siah, dan Tuan di Kandang (Biluy). 
Dalam triwulan ini 2350 Gulden (f) telah diproses.*** 
Secara khusus, saya menyebutkan sebuah legenda terkait dengan Kampung Bitai, yang diceritakan oleh seorang laki-laki tua yang tinggal di sana, bahwa di sudut-sudut kompleks makam Jirat Manyang telah dikubur bejana-bejana berisi benda berharga, tapi semua itu baru bisa ditemukan setelah melakukan kenduri [dengan menyembelih seekor hewan] (di sini, keterangan de Vink yang sesungguhnya mengenai penyembelihan hewan tidak masuk akal, dan telah saya luruskan-MZ). Sebagian batu-batu nisan di situ telah rusak, dan menurut Dr. Djajadiningrat tidak ada inskripsi yang penting. 
Kuta Raja, Maret 1915. 
Diterbitkan dalam: 
(Oudheidkundige Dienst in Nederlandsch-Indie - Oudheikundig Verslag 1915 : p. 40-41)
(Layanan Kepurbakalaan di Hindia Belanda - Laporan Kepurbakalaan 1915 : h. 40 - 41)
*** Konversi f 2350 ke nilai IDR masa sekarang: 
Noveldesra Suhery: 
1 florin (gulden) tahun 1920 bisa membeli 7 kg gula premium.
f 40000 tahun 1916 dapat membeli 5,6 kg emas (5600 gram)
Jika harga gula premium hari ini adalah Rp11.000 per kg, maka 1 florin (gulden) tahun 1920 setara dengan Rp77.000 (tahun 2015). 
Jika harga emas hari ini (2015) adalah Rp530.000 per gram, maka harga 5600 gram emas hari ini (2015) adalah Rp2.968.000.000 (hampir 3 milyar Rupiah). Artinya, jika Rp2.968.000.000 sama dengan f40.000 (tahun 1916), maka f1 (satu gulden) tahun itu sama dengan Rp74.200 hari ini (2015). 
Antara 2 informasi ini, (konversi dengan harga gula dan harga emas), maka konversi 1 gulden tahun 1916 - 1920 adalah setara dengan Rp 74.200 (Mei 2015).
Posted 4th May 2015 by Noveldesra Suhery
Link: http://desranov.blogspot.co.id/2015/05/konversi-nilai-mata-uang-zaman.html 
Maka, konversi f 2350 ke nilai IDR masa sekarang adalah: Rp. 174.370.000, dan itu untuk kegiatan selama 3 bulan. 
Catatan: 
Terjemahan ini terpaksa dilakukan untuk mengetahui apa yang telah dituls tentang peninggalan sejarah Aceh di permulaan abad silam, sebab berharap dan menanti terjemahan dari pihak lain (apalagi dari pihak berkompeten), untuk sementara ini, hanya akan membuang waktu saja. 
Karena dilakukan secara terpaksa, maka kekurangan adalah hal yang tidak dapat dielakkan. Kepada ahli, mohon perbaikan dan penyempurnaan, atau bahkan penerjemahan ulang.
Laporan ini berbahasa Belanda diterjemahkan oleh Musafir Zaman.
Dikutip dari group facebook Mapesa.

The hidden face of ancient art in the archipelago

2:59:00 PM

As a prologue

The Hindu-Buddhist arts are the most recognizable art in the Southeast Asian archipelago, or what was formerly called the Indian archipelago. Meanwhile, Islamic art that emerged in the period of Islamic culture reached its peak in Southeast Asia, is a very less recognizable art even though it has high artistic and historical values.
Acheh, which emerged as a powerful and influential country after the decline of the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms on the Malay peninsula, and the Southeast Asian archipelago, is one of the historical heritages that totally presents Islamic art.

The doctrine that gave birth to a special art

Islam that teaches Al-Wasatiyyah (ie, the awareness that every Muslim individual is part of justly balanced ummah) has given a Muslim community the space to embrace the goodness that existed in the cultures of pre-Islamic societies, to be placed in harmony with beliefs and practices taught by Islam. And that includes goodness in the vast art field.
Hence, Islamic culture has diversity, which is difficult to quantify ; a number of nations, peoples and tribes that embrace Islam in the World. At the same time, it has also spawned a number of special art, which carry the characteristics of Islamic art in it.
Among that special art is Aceh's gravestone art, which for the time being, is not exaggerated to say, as the hidden face of ancient art, or even the hidden treasures of ancient art. Very few people know it, and not many people are trying to explore it.

Exploration of Mapesa NGOs for Aceh's Gravestone Art

As it has just been said that Aceh's gravestone art, in general, has received less attention, and is "the hidden face of ancient art", therefore Mapesa has been compelled to focus on this archeological heritage, to trace, document, study and trying to preserve it.
The interest of Aceh gravestones as one of the cultural products in the past is mainly to find out the form and cultural values that developed for hundreds of years ago. It is also a kind of artwork that provides various information and data through its inscriptions and decorations. The gravestones usually also contain epitaphs telling the owner of the grave, as well as various sentences, whether it be the verses of the Qur'an, hadith or religious poems. In addition, burial complexes where ancient gravestones exist can also help various studies on ancient spatial layout.
So, even though it is hard work and takes a long time, it is something worth doing in the development of several branches of knowledge, especially history and archeology.

In a historical and archaeological site near Banda Aceh

Short reports, along with pictures, like this, will also be encountered in subsequent posts, because that is the main work of this non-governmental organization based in Aceh.
Archaeological site in the form of this ancient cemetery was in a village called Lam Blang Trieng, District Lampeuneurut, Regency of Aceh Besar. First discovered by Mapesa in a state covered by thick bushes. This cemetery belongs to the people who lived in the area about 500 years ago.
The nobles and important figures of the time are believed to have been buried here with the markings of high artistic gravestones. Unfortunately, so far, no names of them have been found because some of the inscriptions have been blurred and hard to read.
Among the things that really interest is the form of some gravestones and also the motifs of decoration that is very charming and rich. In general there are two main forms of gravestones in this cemetery, one, a flat gravestone that sometimes has both wings on the right and left sides, and the other, a gravestone originating from earlier traditions; rectangular, perpendicular, and it all culminates with something resembling a crown. As for the decoration, it is not exaggerated to describe, that the ornaments on the gravestones appear as an explosion of the reliefs of dense and highly dynamic floral motifs.
Here are the pictures.


Onegravestone that has been sank into the ground, and above it grows a coconut tree. The Mapesa team is trying to pick it up again.








Mapesa's plan concerns this site

In the view of Mapesa, this site and various archaeological heritages on this site have a high importance for the heritage of human history and for the development of knowledge about the past in the future. Therefore, this site deserves adequate care and preservation. On this basis, Mapesa plans to preserve this cemetery by building a cupola that shelter it and keeping it from the heat of the sun and rain, which will destroy it slowly. Donate for this plan is open to anyone.

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Perpetuating the memories of nations

2:33:00 PM
A brief introduction to the Aceh network in the past,
and its relation to Aceh's historical heritage

A part of the world story

This is a part of the world story, which has been forgotten. The great political events, and the rapidly changing faces of the world in the twentieth century, have swept away many of the world's past stories into the oceans of forgetfulness. Not infrequently, the forgetfulness is also accompanied by the denial of facts prevailing in the past, as if the facts had never occurred.

A historical heritage area in northwest Aceh known as Indrapurva historical site. The distribution of graves, tombstones, ancient structures and ancient pottery fragments proves that the area is a dense settlement in the past, and is closely related to maritime activities in the tip of Sumatra.
Under such conditions, historical heritage is, no doubt, the only one that will defend the past realities to remain in the minds of people. Historical heritage will always remind the past realities, showing pictures of times filled with lessons, both hard and happy, that people have passed through. Moreover, historical heritage is also a cultural record that has important value for human life in the present and future.
If we talk about that now, that is because Aceh has a rich historical heritage, which has reminded us of the Aceh network in the past. From there we have set out to explore the various literature ever written about Aceh, and we have found reports that convince us that the network is true.

Many historical tombstones in the area have been damaged (erosion) caused by sea tides.
So, this is not only important for Aceh, but also for various nations. We turn out to have a memory that we inherited together from the past. It certainly belongs not only to the people of Aceh, but also to many people in the world.

A glimpse of the Aceh network in the past (Based on some Western literature)

Bruce B. Lawrence and Miriam Cooke at the beginning of their talks on the Muslim Network in the Encyclopedia of Islam, they immediately chose the topic: "The Case of Acheh", and wrote:
Acheh, a port city situated at the northern tip of Sumatra astride the Strait of Malacca, exemplifies the ways in which major nodes in the various networks of the early Muslim empires worked. (1)
Both authors also state that the sultan of Aceh was a Muslim networker par excellence. The office of sultan marks both the power and limits of Muslim networks. Its persistence from India to Indonesia demonstrates the cultural diffusion of a major Islamic political institution. (2)
In fact, Aceh not only exemplifies how the network of the Islamic world works, but is caused by commerce, Aceh is also one of the main nodes of various trade networks in the world. It can be imagined from a description in The Encyclopaedia Britannica where it is stated:
The chief attraction of Achin (Acheh) to traders in the 17th century must have been gold. No place in the East, unless Japan, was abundantly supplied with gold. The great repute of Achin as a place of trade is shown by the fact that to this port the first Dutch (1599) and first English (1602) commercial ventures to the Indies were directed. Sir James Lancaster, the English commodore, carried letters from Queen Elizabeth to the king of Achin, and as well received by the prince then reigning, Alaudin Shah. Another exchange of letters took place between King James I and Iskandar Muda in 1613. (3)
William Dampier (c. 1688) and others speak of the number of foreign merchants settled there - English, Dutch, Danes, Portuguese, Chinese, &c. Dampier says the anchorage was rarely without ten or fifteen sail of different nations, briging vast quantities of rice, as well as silks, chintzes, muslins and opium. Besides the Chinese merchants settled at Achin, others used to come annually with junks, ten or twelve in number, which arrived in June. A regular fair was then established, which lasted two months, and was known as the China camp, a great resort of foreigners. (4)
The Universal Geography by Elisee Reclus mentions that at the time of its greatest prosperity, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, the Atjeh empire embraced about half of the island, and held several secondary states in vassalage. From Egypt to Japan ruling princes sought its alliance; its army comisrised hundreds of fighting elephants and disposed of two thousand guns. (5)
Here also need to be cited The The Encyclopaedia Britannica's information about the people of Aceh, which mentions that the chief characteristic is their love of fighting ; every man is a soldier and every village has its army. They are industrious and skilful agriculturists, metal-wokers and weavers. They build excellent ships. Their social organization is communal. (6)
The Encyclopedia's statement about the character of the Acehnese who likes fights certainly creates a negative impression and must be straightened out because in essence the Acehnese are also people who love peace and like to establish relationships with anyone on the principle of mutual works that are built on justice and mutual respect.
On the basis of that principle also, Aceh is inhabited by a cosmopolitan society and able to establish relationships with various countries and cultures in the world. Its various historical heritage, later on, will show how the Aceh culture is a collection of elements from different world cultures that have been packed in one complete form.

Aceh network and historical heritage

India and China are two large cultural regions, which have long-standing influence on the northern tip of Sumatra. It is something that is difficult to deny due to Aceh geographically located between the two cultural regions. The early migrations from these two great lands have certainly planted various elements of their culture.
One of the works that showcased the ability of Acehnese artists in the past.
Nevertheless, these two cultural influences did not lift Aceh into the main stage of world history. The northern tip of Sumatra or Aceh just became one of the main stages of world historical events after Islam came and enlightened the lives of its people. Since that time, its history really begins, and around the beginning of the 13th century have begun to have a wide influence in Southeast Asia.
From that time on, Aceh interacted with various nations and cultures, taking and giving in various aspects of life. From that time onwards, Aceh builds its culture that unites the inner and outer elements in an alignment, which in turn is known as the Aceh Culture, in which its roots absorb into various cultural sources.
Nevertheless, these two cultural influences did not lift Aceh into the main stage of world history. The northern tip of Sumatra or Aceh just became one of the main stages of world historical events after Islam came and enlightened the lives of its people. Since that time, its history really begins, and around the beginning of the 13th century have begun to have a wide influence in Southeast Asia.
From that time on, Aceh interacted with various nations and cultures, taking and giving in various aspects of life. From that time onwards, Aceh builds its culture that unites the inner and outer elements in an alignment, which in turn is known as the Aceh Culture, in which its roots absorb into various cultural sources.
Debris of an ancient building structure that sank in the tidal area
The Aceh culture that was formed in the past, which was built as a result of the intelligence and wisdom taught by Islam in interacting with various nations and cultures, left its traces in the form of Aceh's historical heritage. Finding historical heritage, exploring the ideas contained therein, later discovered the country's origin of such objects and ideas as well.

Among the ancient pottery fragments found in wide spreads in the site area.

Conclusion

Aceh's historical heritage, in essence, demonstrates the cultures absorbed into Acehnese culture. Unfortunately, because of its historical narrative, which has been almost filled with stories of political and trade clashes, so that the ancient realms of Aceh culture that essentially display the wisdom of a cosmopolitan society, in the end, become less noticeable, even drowned.
So, in fact, exploring Aceh's historical heritage, exploring the information and ideas it holds, and preserving it, are the activities that are genuinely to safeguard and perpetuate the collective memories of nations that once met, talked to each other, gave each other and received, in the northernmost part of Sumatra, at Bandar Aceh Darussalam.
Thus, these activities also need strong financial support, as well as other forms of support.

Notes:
1. Lawrence, Bruce B. & Cooke, Miriam, "Muslim Network" in Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world, Edited by Richard C. Martin, United States of America, 2004, p. 507.
2. Idem.
3. The Encyclopaedia Britannica ; A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Vol. 1, Cambridge : The University Press, 1910, p. 144 (Achin).
4. Idem.
5. Relcus, Elisee, The Universal Geography, Ed. A. H. Keane, B.A., Vol. XIV, London, n.d.
6. The Encyclopaedia Britannica.

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